WHAT IS AUTISM ?
The term autism comes from the Greek word autos, which means self. It is then coined asautismus (Latin) by Eugen Bleuler. Autism is not a disease, but rather a disorder of the development of the permanent and profound brain functions. Autism is a complex neurological disorder that usually lasts a lifetime. In many cases, autism causes problems with: communication, both verbal and non-verbal.
In the Autism case, social interactions with other people, both physical (such as hugging or holding) and verbal (how to keep a conversation) are not easy to carry, routines or repetitive behaviors, as repeating words or actions over and over again, follow their routines or the timetable for their obsessively activities, or have very specific ways to fix your belongings. Symptoms are generally inability of social interaction, insulation, type casting (movements not controlled any limb, usually the hands), very rigid behaviour, denial of any changes or new and repeat an action determined many times.
The autism spectrum disorder
The TEA includes (autism spectrum disorder) syndrome of autism, Asperger’s, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Rett syndrome and childhood disorder disintegration. The study by Columbia University scientists would demonstrate that the brains of people with autism are dear friends. This would be due to the existence of an anomaly in the phase of pruning, period in which the brain leaves synaptic connections between neurons, and that was not developed as expected.To carry out this study scientists at Columbia University examined the brains of 26 children and young people with autism aged 2 to 20 who had died for various reasons. The comparison with other healthy brains resulted that brains affected only had reduced their synaptic 16% connections while healthy had done in half. Something that had not been demonstrated so far.
Synaptic pruning in mice could also be restored with autism due to a drug called rapamycin that is administered in people with some transplanted organ since it is used as an immune system depressant. One of its side effects would be the reduce synapses but at the moment is far from being used as a treatment for autism.
The syndrome of autism
It includes severe impairments in three specific areas:
- Ability to communicate
- Ability to interact socially
- Presence of restricted repetitive patterns of conduct
Typically manifested before 3 years of age. The disorder of autism can be divided between severe and mild or high function. Mild autism, cognitive functions are normal or may even be higher than normal, the level of activity theory in a child with autism can vary from deep mental to be posedores of a superior intelligence retardation. His verbal ability varies also, they can not speak or communicate, either they may in other cases present a great ability of speech.
Children with Asperger syndrome present inability to participate in the social dynamics, as well as patterns of strongly marked and exclusive interest in similar way children with autism disorder but without a significant delay of speech. His ability to communicate might be affected by lack of ability to understand and therefore engage in social situations, often making inappropriate comments or monopolizing the conversation on a topic of your interest. Usually they do not present delay in cognitive functions.
Generalized unspecified developmental disorder
This diagnosis is applied to children who have some strokes of autism but that do not meet the criteria to receive a diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome. Children who present TGD normally act like a child with autism syndrome or syndrome Asperger in social situations and have some other impediments in other fields. This diagnosis usually is gives to children with a delay in the development and present inability in some but not all areas of development that normally are affected in the case of the syndrome of autism (communication, theory and social). This diagnosis is given also to individuals who meet the criteria for TEA in which case it could not document the delay or loss of speech.
Rett syndrome and childhood disorder disintegration.
These two are syndromes more sevros of the spectrum, are also extremely rare. In comparison with classical autism which usually occurs mostly in males. Rett syndrome affects women, it usually presents a severe weakening of the muscles and great difficulties of coordinating motor grosa. Disintegration of childhood disorder is comumente more severe than autism and other autism spectrum disorders unlike not da signals up to 3 or 4 years of age, that is when it starts to introduce severe regression in the development.
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